P-Block elements

P-Block elements is one of the most important topics since a lot of questions are asked directly on the elements in the p-block. Further knowing the properties of the p-block elements help in solving many important question from other topics. Once again this topic requires you to know the properties and the characteristics of elements of p-block. The number of indirect questions that can be asked from this topic is limited. Since p-block elements is a vast topic, there can be a variety of questions that can be asked from the nook and corner of the topic. Let us first look at the trend of questions from this topic for the past few years.

One thing to remember while learning this topic is to learn the trends and characteristics of elements group-wise. This makes it easy to remember them. There are exceptions to trends in each group which have to be remembered.

Another important point in this topic is to learn the important compounds under each group thoroughly. Each compound has its own properties and uses that are normally asked. Never try to by-heart the properties because in the end you will forget them. Understand the trends and study why the exceptions are created. This will help you to remember them and recollect them without fail during the exams. Now let’s move onto the topics.


In every group you need to learn the trend in the periodic characteristics and their order. These include Ionization Enthalpy, Electron Gain Enthalpy, Oxidation states and reducing character. Below are the important elements and compounds in each group about which we need to learn thoroughly for the exam.

  1. Group 13 Boron family: The elements to learn under this group are Boron, Aluminum, Gallium, Indium and Thallium. The important minerals under this group are Borax and Kernite. Other important topics in this group are properties of Boric Acid, Diborane and the chemical reactions of borax.

  2. Group 14 Carbon Family: The elements to learn in detail under this group are Carbon, Silicon, Germanium, Tin and Lead. The important mineral under this group are allotropes of carbon and forms of carbon like dry ice.

  3. Group 15 Pnicogens: The elements to learn in detail under this group are Nitrogen, Phosphorous, Arsenic, Antimony and Bismuth. The important compounds in this group include hydrides of the elements and the halides. Also Haber’s process for the formation of ammonia is an important reaction to be learnt here.

  4. Group 16 Chalogen: The elements to learn in detail under this group are Oxygen, Sulphur, Selenium, Tellurium and Polonium. The important compounds include the oxides and sulpides of other elements and the oil of vitriol [Sulphuric Acid]

  5. Group 17 Halogens: The elements to learn in detail under thi group are Fluorine, chlorine, bromine, iodine and astatine. The periodic properties of halogens is a pretty common question so pay special attention to the trends and exceptions in this area.

  6. Group 18 Noble Gases: The elements to learn in detail under this group are Helium, neon, argon, krypton, xenon and radon. The most important part of this group are the properties of the fluorides and oxy-fluorides of Xenon.